Urine albumin to creatinine ratio

  • The kidneys’ principal role is to purify the blood. Kidneys store vital components of your blood, such as protein, that your body requires. 
  • Moreover, they eliminate waste and surplus water from your body. If your kidneys function correctly, they should allow very little protein to pass into your urine. 
  • Yet if your kidneys are compromised, proteins may “leak” into your urine. 
  • A higher albumin level in the urine leads to a higher risk of developing chronic renal disease and kidney failure.
  • The body needs protein. It’s a crucial nutrient that supports muscle development, tissue healing, and infection resistance.
  •  Albuminuria, or proteinuria, is the medical term for when albumin (a type of protein) is present in the urine. 
  • It should, however, be in your blood and not your urine. And its level can be investigated by the uCAR test.
  •  It is a standard urine evaluation test. The test only requires a small urine sample, and the results are drawn accordingly. 
  • The urine albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR) determines if albumin is present in the urine. Usually, the blood contains a particular sort of protein called albumin.
  • Only about 30 mg/g of albumin is considered normal in urine. Although if the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is higher than 60 mg/g, anything above 30 mg/g may indicate that you have renal disease.
  • A high uACR could be an early indicator of renal disease, but your medical team will perform additional testing to rule out other potential causes of albuminuria.
  •  The uACR will be advised again if your medical team suspects you may have kidney disease. Two high findings indicate kidney disease for three months or longer.
  • The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a quick blood test, will be performed along with the uACR test. The eGFR measures how well the kidneys are functioning.
  • Your medical team might also carry out one or more of the following tests in light of your eGFR and uACR:
  • Imaging techniques like ultrasound or CT scans can visualize kidneys and urinary tracts.
  • Scans reveal if the patient’s kidneys are enlarged or shrunk, if you have a problem such as a kidney stone or tumor, and if your kidneys and urinary tract’s structural integrity is compromised.
  • Sometimes, a kidney biopsy is carried out for a particular renal illness. Planning treatment is made more accessible by this test, which reveals the type and extent of kidney disease. The physician uses a needle to extract little kidney fragments for a biopsy.
  • This medication comes in two varieties. An ACEi (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) and an ARB are two examples of drugs (angiotensin receptor blockers).

Urine albumin excretion rate

  • A higher albumin excretion rate (AER) has received less attention than it should as a precursor to cardiovascular risk in young people.
  • AER, or albumin excretion rate, is a word used in medicine to measure kidney function and the early detection of kidney injury.
  •  It calculates the volume of albumin, a type of protein, that has been detected in the urine over a predetermined time frame.
  •  Normal albumin levels are in the bloodstream, but seeing it in the urine indicates an issue with the kidneys’ filtration system. 
  • The amount of albumin excreted in the urine (AER) is commonly expressed in milligrams (mg) or micrograms (g) per minute (mL/min) or every 24 hours. 
  • It is a crucial sign for assessing kidney health, especially in people with diabetes or high blood pressure, because these disorders might eventually cause kidney damage.
  • Only about 30 mg (or 20 g/min) of albumin is usually excreted from the body every 24 hours, which is extremely low. 
  • Regularly tracking the albumin excretion rate can aid medical professionals in spotting kidney issues early on, enabling prompt intervention and management to halt the course of kidney disease. 
  • Lifestyle modifications, blood pressure management, diabetes management, and drugs to prevent future kidney damage are all possible forms of treatment.
  •  Dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary for survival if the kidney disease worsens enough to end up with End-stage renal disease (ESRD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD).


  • Microalbuminuria (MA) is a substantial predictor of future kidney disease and mortality in patients with diabetes.
  • Microalbuminuria is the term for slightly higher urine albumin levels that do not yet fall into the range that indicates severe kidney injury.
  • AER readings between 20 and 200 g/min (or 30-300 mg per 24 hours) are regarded as being in the microalbuminuria range.
  • Microalbuminuria is frequently an early indicator of renal dysfunction, especially in people with diabetes or high blood pressure. It might also be a sign of renal disease in its early stages.


  • A considerable increase in the excretion of albumin in the urine, or macroalbuminuria, also known as overt albuminuria or proteinuria, denotes severe kidney impairment.
  • Macroalbuminuria has AER rates of 200 g/min or more or 300 mg/24 hours.
  • Macroalbuminuria is a specific indicator of kidney disease and may be linked to illnesses like hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, or other CKD types.
  • Early intervention and therapy are essential to halt the progression of renal disease and avert further problems if abnormal AER values are found.
  • To safeguard renal function and general health, lifestyle modifications, blood pressure management, diabetes management (if appropriate), and drugs can be used.
  •  Regular monitoring and follow-up are needed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and make any required modifications to the management plan.

Clinical significance 

  • The potential of the albumin excretion rate to offer early warning indications of kidney failure, enabling prompt intervention and proper care to stop or slow the progression of renal disease, is the clinical importance of the albumin excretion rate.
  •  It is a valuable technique for determining kidney health, particularly in high-risk people, and it is essential to the overall treatment of those with kidney-related disorders.
  • Healthcare professionals can spot kidney impairment early on by monitoring AER, even before other symptoms, like changes in regular renal function tests, become apparent.
  •  Risk assessment for those at high risk, like cardiac or renal, early interventions, and kidney function monitoring 

Random microalbumunuria

  • Urine testing for spontaneous microalbumin is available at any time. 
  • Albumin, a protein that is excreted through urine, includes microalbumin. 
  • Early kidney disease symptoms may consist of a slight rise in microalbumin in the urine.
  •  A persistent increase in albumin levels of 30–300 mg daily in the urine is known as microalbuminuria. 
  • The albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) test can be done to assess microalbuminuria. 
  • To increase the accuracy of the results, doctors frequently complement the microalbumin test with a creatinine test.
  • Protein levels are a better predictor of renal disease development when albumin levels are over 500–1000 mg/g. 
  • Microalbumin in your urine may also indicate a higher risk of developing heart disease. 
  • Blood in your urine, a urinary tract infection, and an acid-base imbalance can all result in higher amounts of microalbumin.
  • The clinical setting, underlying diseases, and verification of the finding by additional testing all affect how random microalbuminuria should be interpreted. 
  • You need to consult a healthcare expert for further evaluation and appropriate management if you or someone you know has received such results. 
  • Based on the person’s medical background and unique circumstances, they can offer individualized advice.
  • Random microalbuminuria is clinically significant as it is an early warning sign of kidney damage, particularly in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

Urine protein-creatinine ratio

  • A urine test measures the urine’s protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR). It evaluates your urine’s protein and creatinine levels. 
  • Your muscle cells consume creatine, which produces the waste product creatinine (a natural chemical that gives your muscles energy). 
  • Your doctor can learn vital details about the health of your kidneys via a UPCR test. The outcomes of this examination aid your doctor in diagnosing illnesses that can harm your kidneys. 
  • UPCR is also utilized to check on the effectiveness of the therapy. 
  • Your doctor could suggest more tests or treatments based on the findings. You might receive a UPCR.
  • In the course of a standard physical checkup to check for proteinuria.
  • If you exhibit preeclampsia symptoms while pregnant.
  • Suppose you have symptoms or indicators of kidney injury, renal disease, or chronic kidney disease. In that case, you might undergo a UPCR to diagnose or monitor these problems (such as abnormal lab tests for serum creatinine).
  • Poorly functioning kidneys struggle to filter proteins and return them to the blood. This protein leaks into your urine rather than being reabsorbed into your blood.
  • An example of a kidney function test is a UPCR test. By counting the protein content and creatinine in your urine, kidney impairment can be identified.
  • Because it detects these two chemicals in a single urine sample, a UPCR test is precise.
  • The UPCR test is rapid, painless, and noninvasive. 
  • This test aids your doctor in looking for illnesses and conditions that influence how well your kidneys are functioning by using a small sample of urine. 
  • Also, it aids your doctor in keeping track of your kidney damage treatment. 
  • You must provide one urine sample for a UPCR test because it checks for creatinine and protein levels. 
  • A UPCR test is a quick and trustworthy substitute for testing that requires numerous illustrations.
  • Healthy kidneys excrete less than 150 mg of proteins daily in the urine. 

Temporarily greater protein concentrations in your urine might happen as a result of the following:

Physically demanding exercise.





  • Protein levels persistently higher than average may indicate significant renal injury or kidney failure.
  •  Reasonable protein amounts can also assist your doctor in identifying diseases like high blood pressure or diabetes that harm the kidneys.
  • The urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPCR) test checks for elevated protein levels in your urine, which can occur in renal disease. 
  • Adults typically have a protein-to-creatinine ratio of less than 0.2; children under two usually have one of less than 0.25; and children between 6 months and two typically have one of less than 0.5.
  • Temporarily elevated urine protein levels can be observed in illnesses, stress, pregnancy, nutrition, exposure to the cold, or vigorous exercise. 
  • An indication of severe kidney damage and renal failure may be persistently higher-than-normal levels of proteins. 
  • Your doctor may be able to recognize kidney-damaging diseases, including diabetes and high blood pressure, with the aid of increased protein levels.

24 hours urine albumin

  • The 24-hour urine microalbumin test analyzes the amount of albumin in the urine over 24 hours to detect kidney disease.
  •  Only about 30 mg of albumin per day is considered normal in urine. It may indicate renal illness or injury if a test reveals elevated or increased urine albumin levels.
  • You must bring your lab order to get the suitable specimen container before collecting the sample for the test. 
  • There’s no need for additional preparation.
  • The 24-hour urine protein test evaluates kidney health and looks for illness. Over a day, urine is gathered and delivered to a lab.
  • Because albumin production in the urine varies daily and is inherently unpredictable, two out of three recorded albumin levels during a three- to six-month period should be aberrant before a patient is deemed to have passed the diagnostic threshold.
  •  Exercise in the preceding 24 hours, as well as during the time of collection, may temporarily raise albumin levels. 
  • Albumin levels may rise due to other factors such as an infection, fever, congestive cardiac failure, severe hyperglycemia, and severe hypertension.

Normal: 0–29 mg per day

Slightly raised: 30–300 mg per day

Much raised: >300 mg per day

  • Because certain conditions, such as exercising, fever, urinary tract infections, or specific drugs, can momentarily increase albumin excretion, elevated albumin levels are not always indicative of renal disease. 
  • Hence, before making a final diagnosis or treatment decision, healthcare practitioners must evaluate the data in light of other clinical findings.


How do I preserve kidney function?

Check your kidneys at least once a year. Your medical team will do a quick blood test to determine your eGFR. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR), which identifies a protein in the urine, will also be performed. You may have a kidney injury if you have protein in your urine.
If you have high blood pressure, take control of it.
If you have diabetes, control your blood sugar.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, should generally be avoided if you have CKD.
Before performing any test that includes contrast dye, let your medical staff know if you have CKD.
Avoid smoking.
Exercise and maintain a nutritious diet high in fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, protein, and low in sodium, saturated fat, and sugar.
You ought to consume a diet low in sodium and salt. This kind of diet enhances the effectiveness of blood pressure medication.
Your medical staff may also recommend that you consult with a nephrologist, a kidney specialist who will review your case and assist with care management.

Can renal testing identify renal stones or other conditions affecting the urinary tract?

Although renal tests mainly concentrate on renal function and impairment, they may also indirectly reveal information concerning some urological illnesses or kidney stone-related problems. For these conditions to be confirmed, additional tests could be required.

What are a few other renal tests?

Other tests include the urine pH Test to identify the alkalinity, a ketone test done to rule out the presence of ketone bodies in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, a bilirubin test, and a urine cortisol test.

How frequently should kidney health assessments be repeated?

Your health situation and risk factors will determine how frequently you undergo kidney tests. To evaluate kidney function and disease, regular monitoring may be required for people with renal disease or risk factors.

How is the rate of albumin excretion, or UAER, determined?

UAE (mg/24 hours) = Albumin (mg/dl) times 24-hour urine volume (dl).
Albumin excretion rate in the urine (AER): The excretion rate per minute is determined and expressed as micrograms per minute in timed urine collection, also known as the UAER.

Does excessive water consumption raise albumin levels?

A high water intake, commonly known as water intoxication, can result in unusual albumin findings. 
Other circumstances in which the examination may occur include third-degree burns and Wilson’s illness.

Which test for proteinuria is the most reliable and accurate?

The 24-hour urine sample is the benchmark for quantifying proteinuria.

Is there a proteinuria home test available for children?

Standard medical treatment for kids with nephrotic syndrome involves routine urine dipstick screening for proteinuria. 
The Albustix® urine dipstick test is currently used in patients to identify proteinuria. 
The stick is dipped into the child’s urine after urinating into a cup. And the results are monitored.

What foods should a person with proteinuria avoid eating?

It will help if you avoid meals high in potassium and magnesium.
The majority of the vegetables and fruits that are fresh are among the foods high in potassium.