Role of vaptans in chronic Kidney disease

  • Vaptans are recently being used under the category of vasopressin receptors antagonist. They help in the excretion of excessive water In the form of urine. This is called diuresis. Vaptans are now used to induce diuresis in patients with Chronic Kidney disease. Other medications used along with vaptans are spironolactone, furosemide, etc. Vaptans have a lot of roles that they play in controlling the kidneys of the patient with CKD. 
  • It helps in water excretion with the least amount of solute in it. Hence, hyponatremia is a condition that requires the vaptans are medication. Complications of CKD and renal transplant are usually cardiovascular, vaptans help in preventing them. Its role is described in detail below.
  • It also has a few contents like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, satavaptan, and a few more.
  • They are known to bring about aquarasis. This means it allows the excretion of water but does not allow other solutes to pass in it.

Role of vaptans in inducing diuresis in CKD.

  • More urine formation is called diuresis. 
  • Kidney functions are hampered in the chronic stage of kidney issues, it cannot withstand a heavy workload of filtering the blood. 
  • Toxins can hence accumulate in the kidneys and cause other complications.
  • Vaptans play a role in removing the water from the convoluted tubules by avoiding its reabsorption. 
  • Reduced reabsorption means a lesser load on kidneys and reduced blood volume too.
  • Hence, it acts as a diuretic in patients with Chronic Kidney disease.

Role of vaptans in maintaining electrolyte balance.

  • Electrolytic balance is maintained by kidneys in human beings.
  • In kidney issues, this function of managing electrolyte levels is affected too. This leads to various complications like heart issues, arrhythmias, loss of consciousness, abnormal metabolism, and so on.
  • Vaptans play an important role in maintaining adequate sodium levels in the blood.
  • It acts by preserving sodium in the body by reabsorption of it. At the same time, vaptans promote diuresis without or with less sodium in the urine.
  • Sodium is essential in maintaining adequate brain and heart function.
  • The major function of vaptans is avoiding the sodium excretion and treating hyponatremia.

Role of vaptans in managing hyponatremia.

  • This is the main characteristic of this medical treatment.
  • Hyponatremia can lead to unconsciousness, the heart beats are not properly generated, and sodium is necessary for the cells for its appropriate metabolism and life.
  • When a patient loses more sodium in the urine, vaptans are prescribed. This helps in reducing sodium levels in urine thereby increasing its amount in the body.
  • Patients may have hyponatremia after kidney surgeries, chronic kidney issues, and other renal complications.
  • Other heart and vascular issues which can be primary or secondary due to kidney issues leading to hyponatremia are well treated by vaptans and it is well tolerated by the patient as well.

Role of vaptans in avoiding or treating hypervolemia and cardiac issues in CKD patients.

  • When kidneys deteriorate and it’s functioning reduces, an appropriate amount of water is not excreted.
  • If fluid levels are increased in the body, it leads to high pressure on the heart for its pumping.
  • Hypertension develops.
  • The patient may undergo a cardiac arrest or arrhythmia.
  • This may cause vessel rupture rarely.
  • Reduction in the blood volume In the body is the treatment that the patient needs.
  • Diuresis is induced by the use of vaptans and the blood volume is reduced.
  • It lowers the risk of cardiovascular issues and therefore avoids any life threatening complications in CKD patients.

Role of vaptans in treating diabetic neuropathy.

  • As mentioned earlier, electrolyte imbalance is treated with it.
  • Fluid is excreted and retention is avoided therefore preventing hypertension.
  • It, therefore, avoids fluid overload.
  • Vaptans or tolvaptan help in reducing hyponatremia and water In excess.

Other roles of vaptans.

  • Avoiding congestive cardiac failure.
  • Declining glomerular filtration rate.
  • Cirrhosis.
  • Cardiac arrhythmias are reduced.
  • Cardiac complications after renal transplantation are reduced.

what are the Effects of vaptans on the patient’s body?

  • Patient experiences excessive urination. The patient had to micturate more times than usual.
  • Urination will be more during the night so this can lead to abnormal and inadequate sleep.
  • Headache, myalgia.
  • Irritability in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Bioavailability is less in oral administration.
  • It may sometimes cause hepatotoxicity.

What are vaptans? And what is its pharmacology?

  • Vaptans are medical compounds that are vasopressin receptors antagonists.
  • They are administered orally in most of the cases.
  • A few vaptans are administered intravenously.
  • They have newly been introduced for the treatment of congestive cardiac failure, renal hypertension, and hypernatraemia.
  • They work by reducing the release of solutes in the urine formation.
  • They have side effects associated with the liver.

How do vaptans act and what do they do?

vaptans are the compounds which prohibit the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of the nephron. as the water is not absorbed it is excreated. but it absorbs sodium and thus sodium loss is not seen. so, urination is more, and water and electrolyte balance is maintained.

where do vaptans act?

vaptans are the compounds that act on V2 receptors of the kidney to maintain the water and electrolyte balance in CKD patients by inducing aquaresis. 

why is vasopressin used?

  • to maintain water and electrolyte balance.
  • to avoid hypertensive crisis and congestive cardiac failure.
  • to maintain water balance in Chronic kidney disease.
  • to treat diabetic nephropathy.
  • to reduce glomerular filtration rate.
  • to avoid a rupture in blood vessels due to hypertesion.


  • Vaptans are agents that excrete excess water without solutes.
  • Vaptans are newly introduced agents.
  • They are used as the treatment of choice for the treatment of hyponatremia. 
  • It is used for the issues faced by chronic Kidney disease patients like heart issues, electrolyte imbalance, and hypervolemia.
  • They can be administered orally and sometimes intravenously or IV.
  • They induce diuresis. It increases urination at night in patients.
  • They may show side effects related to the liver like cirrhosis.
  • The patient may have gastric and oral irritation due to this medication.
  • It can be used in Chronic Kidney disease and renal transplants.
  • Vaptans have been recently used. It has been researched for several years now.
  • They are vasopressin receptors antagonists and can be used as a diuretic.
  • It acts by avoiding the fluid accumulation in the body and decreasing blood pressure, heart arrest, and organ failure.
  • It is widely used for its least adverse effects on the patient’s body.  


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