SGLT2 Inhibitors

SGLT2 inhibitor stands for Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 inhibitor. These are the types of medicines that are prescribed for those patients who have type 2 diabetes. These medicines are approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration).

It is consumed with a proper diet routine and recommended exercise to stay fit and, importantly, to lower the sugar level in the blood of diabetic patients. SGLT2 inhibitors are approved for type 2 diabetes only. Their efficiency has not been established in patients with type 1 diabetes, and hence they are not prescribed to other patients.


Drugs under this class


SGLT2 inhibitors have been approved since 2013, and since that time they have been widely used for the treatment of diabetes. These are generally prescribed to be taken once a day with or without food.


The following drugs belong to the SGLT2 inhibitor class with their trade name along with their generic name in the brackets:

-Forxiga (Dapagliflozin)

-Invokana (Canagliflozin)

-Jardiance (empagliflozin)

-Steglatro (Ertugliflozin)

The workings of SGLT2 inhibitors


The organ where this drug affects the most is the kidneys. SGLT2 inhibitors function by preventing the resorption of glucose back into the blood. The inner wall of the kidneys consists of thousands of villi which gradually increase the surface area for the absorption of minerals or any chemicals that have to be filtered by the body. Sometimes, mostly in adults, when they say that their kidneys are not working properly, it means that the absorption of the necessary substance in the fluid is not taking place properly inside the kidney.

This inhibitor allows the kidneys to lower the blood glucose levels and helps to remove the excess glucose in the blood via urine.

The work of the kidney is that it filters the glucose out of the blood and then reabsorbs the glucose back into the blood. The proteins that reabsorb glucose are called sodium-glucose transport proteins.

These proteins need to get blocked, and SGLT2 inhibitors block the absorption, which results in less glucose getting absorbed back into the blood and getting passed out of the body via the urine.

Who should take an SGLT2 Inhibitor?


Before trying on your own an SGLT2 inhibitor, you should consult a doctor, because your doctor will likely suggest you make changes in your lifestyle. These changes consist of a proper diet and exercise for the betterment of your health.

Because SGLT2 inhibitors are a newer medicine that is only approved for type 2 diabetic patients, it would be wise to consult a doctor before taking any steps all by yourself. There is some limited information about their long-term safety. 

They can lower the sugar level in the blood only by a small amount compared with other medications. 


Your doctor should prescribe you an SGLT2 inhibitor when:


~ you have tried other medications for low blood sugar levels, but still, it is not in control.

~ If there is a medical condition, you cannot take other diabetes medications.

~ when you are really at risk of getting very low blood sugar.

The FDA has not approved these drugs for type 1 diabetes. They are not recommended for those who have diabetic ketoacidosis, which is known as a serious complication of diabetes. 

Sometimes these medicines also affect those who have severe kidney disease. 


How does the SGLT2 inhibitor work?


Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) proteins are expressed in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. These particular types of transporters are the best for the treatment of diabetes. They work to filter glucose reabsorption for diabetic patients. The main problem that occurs with these patients is that their kidneys aren’t able to absorb the correct amount of glucose that is required for their bodies. This result causes an imbalance in sugar levels in the blood. 


In patients with type 2 diabetes, this drug can increase the expression of SGLT2 and can be up-regulated, causing a maladaptive response that sometimes worsens hyperglycemia. Some individuals with FRG rarely have hypoglycemia or hypotension effects on the human body, which ensures the safety of both the short-term and long-term use of SGLT2 inhibitors.

Which SGLT2 inhibitor is the most effective?


Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the drugs that are used for the treatment of those patients who are suffering from or have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). these drugs do their work by reducing hyperglycemia in the blood by increasing urinary glucose excretion. 

This process results in the exertion of several favorable effects, including control of glucose. 

It also helps to maintain body mass, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions in many ways.

The most effective SGLT2 inhibitor is Empagliflozin. This medicine is used to treat type 2 diabetes, where the body is not able to make enough insulin, which causes high sugar levels in the blood and affects many organs and the functioning of the human body. Empagliflozin is a powerful SGLT2 inhibitor 

That is used to improve glycemic control in humans, especially in adults who have T2DM. It is recommended the most among all the clinically used or current types of SGLT2 inhibitors, as it has more specificity in dispersion through all the diabetic medicines.

Patients with T2DM along with cardiovascular disease prefer this medication in the first place as it lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases too. This drug also reduces the risk of hypoglycemia.



SGLT2 inhibitors are known as the newest class of oral medications for diabetes. They are anti-hyperglycemic agents that are used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Their novel mechanisms of action make these medications an intriguing option for patients throughout the natural history of type 2 diabetes. 

Research says that it has a wide range of side effects too. These effects include episodes of ketoacidosis. This side effect has recently been identified as being related to SGLT2 inhibitor use.

The FDA continues to encourage reporting of adverse events involving SGLT2 inhibitors to the FDA MedWatch program.

For those who have cardiovascular problems, safety trials are ongoing for these classes of medications to make them more favorable for these types of patients without introducing any other problems into the human body.

Back to Top