The medication probenecid is used to treat persistent gout. A typical issue that may afflict anyone is gout, along with a complicated kind of arthritis. It has been characterized by some symptoms like sudden and severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in joints. This drug affects mainly the kidneys to help the human body eliminate uric acid. Certain antibiotics are also made by using probenecid.



A renal tubular and uricosuric blocker, probenecid. Usually, colchicine is added to it for treating persistent gouty arthritis. It prevents the proximal convoluted tubule from reabsorbing urate. As a result, the serum urate level will progressively drop as the rate of uric acid excretion through the urine increases.

Probenecid competitively inhibits the secretion of several weak organic acids, including penicillins, the majority of cephalosporins, and certain other beta-lactam antibiotics, at the proximal and distal tubules.

This drug can be used for the therapeutic advantages to increase concentrations of certain beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of gonorrhea, neurosyphilis, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).


The mechanism of the action


Inhibiting tubular urate reabsorption causes probenecid to increase uric acid excretion through the urine while reducing serum urate levels. At subtherapeutic quantities, probenecid may also decrease the plasma binding of urate and prevent the kidneys from excreting uric acid. Although the exact mechanism by which probenecid prevents renal tubular transport is unknown, the medication may prevent transporters that need a supply of phosphate bonds with a high energy from functioning.

Uses of this medicine


It is a typical uricosuric drug. It lessens urate tubular reabsorption and decreases the renal excretion of organic anions. Probenecid has also been used to treat individuals with renal impairment and as an adjuvant to antibacterial therapy since it decreases the renal tubular excretion of other medications.

This medicine or drug is used to cure gouty arthritis, but it does not treat a sudden or severe attack of gout. The drug probenecid comes under the class of drugs known as uricosurics. Our body contains uric acid, which sometimes increases and causes swelling and tenderness in the joints. At these times, it is important to control the level of uric acid, and this drug lowers the high level of uric acid.

It helps the kidneys to get rid of excessive uric acid, as a high level of this acid causes the formation of crystals in the joints, which ultimately stands out as gout.


Probenecid is sometimes prescribed in combination with some antibiotics, for example, penicillins.

It increases the level of antibiotics in the blood, which is effective for the working of antibiotics in a better way.

How to use probenecid


This is a medication that is taken by mouth. Doctors prescribe this usually twice daily with food or antacids to reduce stomach upset. It is said that the best way to consume this is to drink a full glass of water with each dose of this drug.

Probenecid should not be taken during a sudden or severe gout attack. The patient may experience several gout attacks for months after starting the medication while the body removes extra uric acid.

This is not any kind of pain reliever, the only way to get relief from the pain of gout is to take medicines prescribed for pain.

This medicine increases the level of antibiotics in the body so it will be better to confirm with your doctor when to take probenecid and when to take the antibiotic.



The medication should be kept at room temperature in a closed container away from heat, moisture, and bright light. Don’t let it freeze.

Side effects of this medication


As being a drug, probenecid may cause side effects. Some of these side effects are –


-upset stomach



-loss of appetite

-severe skin rash

-difficulty breathing or swallowing

-unusual bleeding or bruising

-allergic reactions like skin, rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue

-blood in the urine

-fever, chills, infection

-lower back or side pain

-pain difficulty passing urine

-painful or swollen joints

-unusually weak or tired


-hair loss


-sore gums

-frequent passing of urine

-nausea, vomiting


Precautions to follow


Before using probenecid, there are various precautions you should follow, such as :-

  1. It will be wise to clear out whether you are allergic or not to the drugs you are going to take.
  1. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the prescription and nonprescription medicines you are taking. Since aspirin products may affect the way your body responds to probenecid, one should avoid them while taking this drug.
  2.  If you have any history of ulcers, kidney stones, kidney disorders, or a blood disorder you should tell your doctor first.
  3. Your pregnancy can get affected by this drug so you should make it clear to your doctor in the first place if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  4. It is usually a smart idea to let your doctor know if you want to have surgery that will require a general anaesthesia.
  5. If you are having any urine tests done during the period when you are consuming probenecid, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel, because it may affect the results of the test.


  1. Certain medicines should not be used together with probenecid at all. When you are taking this medicine, your health care professional must know if you are taking any other medicines or not. Some of the drugs which should not be taken with this medicine are listed below-

– avibactam













These are some dietary instructions that should be followed while taking probenecid: –

To avoid kidney stones, drink at least six to eight glasses of water each day.

Probenecid drugs can sometimes cause stomach upsets so it will be better to take it with food or antacids.

Before using the medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do.

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