Primary Hypertension

What is primary hypertension?


Primary hypertension is also known as essential hypertension  occurs when the blood pressure gets high without any specific medical condition or secondary cause. 


Blood pressure is particularly the force of  flowing blood in opposite the walls of blood vessels. When the blood has more pressure then required pressure it will result in hypertension. 


 Many high blood pressure cases are ranked as primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is another type of hypertension.  The high blood pressure with known causes is known as secondary hypertension such as diabetes, long term kidney infection etc. 


Causes of  primary hypertension


Few factors such as genetics also play a major role in causing primary hypertension. Some more factors are mentioned below which can be the cause of primary hypertension.

  • Stress
  • Less physical activity 
  • Obesity 
  • Unusual diet 


Symptoms of primary hypertension 


In most of the cases there are no noticeable symptoms present in hypertension. Generally it is noticed that the patients with primary hypertension have increased blood pressure during regular check ups. 


Usually it is noticed that primary hypertension occurs most often in middle ages. However, it can begin at any age. 


How to know if you have primary hypertension or not?


The best way for knowing if you have primary hypertension or not is to take  frequent blood pressure checks. For performing blood pressure tests it will be necessary for you to know how to  measure blood pressure and read the results. 


There are two numbers which are shown in blood pressure readings, generally the blood pressure readings are written in the way 120/80. The first number which is shown in the blood pressure readings indicates the systolic pressure of your blood. The systolic pressure is the pressure of your blood against the artery walls which is pumped by your heart in your whole body. 


The second number shown in your reading indicates the diastolic pressure of your blood. Diastolic pressure is the pressure of your blood against your artery walls while the heart beats, as the muscles of the heart get relaxed. 


Readings of blood pressure can keep changing all day. They can be changed depending upon your mood and work. If you get high blood pressure rarely or occasionally then it is not necessary that you are suffering from hypertension. If you have high readings of blood pressure minimum two or three times a day then you will be able to receive the diagnosis of hypertension.


Difference between normal blood pressure and abnormal blood pressure


Blood pressure is said to be normal if it is less than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). 


Blood pressure which is higher than normal blood pressure is called elevates blood pressure but it is not high enough to cause hypertension. Elevated  blood pressure is:

  • Less than 80 mmHg diastolic pressure.
  • 120 to 129 mmHg systolic pressure.


There are two stages of hypertension which are mentioned below: 


Stage 1 hypertension


  • In it the systolic pressure of blood from 130 to 139 mmHg is  present.  
  • In it the diastolic pressure of blood from 80 to 89 mmHg is present. 


Stage 2 hypertension 


  • In it the systolic pressure of blood higher than 140 mmHg is present.
  • In it the diastolic pressure of blood higher than 90 mmHg is present. 


How is primary hypertension diagnosed ?


 Your blood pressure will be measured by your doctor with the help of a blood pressure monitor. They may ask you to check your blood pressure at home frequently if you are diagnosed with high blood pressure at the clinic. Your doctor will also guide you about how to use a blood pressure monitor at home. 


After measuring your blood pressure with the help of a blood pressure machine you should record your blood pressure readings and discuss it later with your doctor.  On the basis of your average blood pressure readings taken at different times are used to determine the severity of your high blood pressure.


For checking the signs of heart disease your doctor will perform a few types of physical exam on you which will include checking your eyes , listening to your heart beat and lungs and checking the blood flow in your neck. The small vessels of blood present at the back of your eyes are helpful for determining the damages from high blood pressure. 


Some of these tests may be suggested by your doctor in order to detect the problems in your heart and kidney problems.

  • Organ function tests: This test is the combination of many tests such as urine test, blood tests, ultrasound etc. This test is performed for checking the functions of all the organs in your body. 
  • Lipid profile: Lipid profile test is also known as cholesterol test. This is the test which is  performed with the help of your blood sample to test the amounts of cholesterol in it. 
  • Echocardiogram:  It is the type of ultrasound scan used for scanning the heart and its nearby blood vessels. This test helps to produce the images of the heart by using sound waves. 
  • Electrocardiogram: The process of producing electrocardiogram is known as electrography. It is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity. 


How to treat primary hypertension?


Sadly, there is no appropriate way discovered for curing the condition of primary hypertension, but some treatments are there for it. 


Leading a health life 


If you are suffering from hypertension or high blood pressure then one of the most appropriate ways for lowering your blood pressure is making changes in your lifestyle. Few lifestyle changes which may help you to get rid of  hypertension or high blood pressure are written below. 


  • Quit smoking 
  • Limit your alcohol intakes.
  • Try to take less stress. 
  • Try to perform exercise at least half an hour a day. 
  • Reduce your weight if you have an overweight body. 
  • Eat healthy. 


Specific medications 


If the blood pressure of your body is not even lowering after making changes in your lifestyle then it may be possible that your doctor will suggest you one more antihypertensive medication. Few common medications which are used in the cases of high blood pressure includes: 


  • Renin inhibitors, such as alikerin (Tekturna). 
  • Beta blockers, such as metoprolol (Lopressor). 
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (cozaar). 
  • Angiotensin- converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitors such as captopril (Capoten). 
  • Diuretics such as hydrochloride/HCTZ (microzide). 
  • Calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine (Norvasc). 


Complications included in primary hypertension


Your heart will have to work according to your blood pressure. Your organs, blood vessels, and muscles of the heart can be damaged because of the strong force of blood. This can be responsible for reducing flow of blood in your body which may result to: 

  • Nerve damage 
  • Kidney failure
  • Heart failure 
  • Stroke
  •  Eye damage
  • Kidney damage 
  • Heart attack 
  • Atherosclerosis 




It is possible that you will need to try multiple types of medications  before you get a combination or a single medication which can effectively help you in lowering down your high blood pressure. It will be necessary for you to continue the changes you made in your life and keep taking medications for hypertension for your whole life. 


Many people take medications for hypertension when it is required otherwise they control their blood pressure on the basis of a healthy lifestyle, which helps them to limit the need of blood pressure medications. 


It is very possible that you will be able to control your blood pressure on the basis of a healthy lifestyle and medications. Keeping control on blood pressure reduces vital organ failure and strokes. It helps in reducing the risk of damage on your vital body organs. If you are already affected by any of these conditions then treatment will help you to stop getting further damage. 

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