A single or both kidneys expand when the urinary system is affected by hydronephrosis. This occurs as a result of incomplete bodily urine elimination. A urinary tract infection symptoms list may include sudden or severe back or side discomfort, nausea, pain when urinating, blood in your urine, weakness, and fever. Depending on the root reason, there are several treatment options available for the illness.


Hydronephrosis: What is it?


A disorder known as hydronephrotic causes one or both kidneys to swell as a result of insufficient urinary tract emptying. It may be brief or ongoing, partial or whole, unilateral or bilateral. Anywhere in the urinary tract—from the kidneys’ entrance through the ureters, which drain the kidneys to the bladder, to the bladder and the urethra—can experience it (draining the bladder). When one of these structures isn’t functioning properly, the urinary system may not empty as well as it should, leading to a fluid and pressure buildup.


Unilateral hydronephrosis is the term used to describe a condition when just one kidney is afflicted. It is referred to as bilateral hydronephrosis if both kidneys are afflicted.


Kidney function may be affected by hydronephrosis. Kidney failure might happen if the kidney or kidneys are not treated immediately away to prevent irreparable harm.


Who can develop hydronephrosis?


Any age group can develop hydronephrosis. It frequently results from structural alterations in the body (anatomical anomalies) that have existed since birth or earlier in children. Kidney stones are frequently the cause in young persons.


How is hydronephrosis brought on?

The ailments that lead to hydronephrosis most frequently in adults are as follows:


  • Stones that might obstruct the urinary system or kidneys are known as kidney stones.


  • Cancer: Blockages that prevent the flow of urine can result from tumors in the bladder, prostate gland, uterus, or other organs that are connected to or nearby the urinary system.


  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): The urethra, the tube through which urine travels before leaving the body, can become compressed in men who have enlarged prostate glands.


  • blockage: Blood clots can form in the ureter or kidney.


  • Urinary tract narrowing or stricture: This narrowing can be brought on by surgery, infection, congenital problems, or injury.
  • Nerve or muscle issues: These issues, like those caused by diabetes mellitus, might damage the kidneys or ureters.


  • Urinary retention: If the bladder cannot be completely emptied, urine may remain inside the body.


  • The condition known as vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine travels backwards from the bladder towards the kidneys.


  • The disorder known as ureterocele causes the bottom portion of the ureter to occasionally protrude through into the bladder.


Women may develop hydronephrosis as a result of:


  • Pregnancy: As the womb grows, it may push against the ureters, preventing urine flow.


  • A disorder in which a lady’s womb (uterus) sags or slides from its usual position is known as uterine prolapse.


  • Cystocele (falling bladder): A condition in which a woman’s bladder drops into her vagina as a result of a weakening of the wall separating it from her vagina.

How does hydronephrosis manifest?


Depending on the reason, hydronephrosis symptoms vary often. There are frequently no symptoms. When symptoms appear, they may consist of:

  • Back or side discomfort that is sudden or very severe
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • uncomfortable or frequent urination
  • Urine with blood in it
  • weakness or ill health
  • a urinary tract infection-related fever
  • No significant alteration in urine production, albeit it could be reduce

The diagnosis of hydronephrosis is how


  • an examination of the body Your doctor will inquire about any problems you may be experiencing and check for any pain or swelling in the region surrounding your kidneys and bladder. The doctor could inquire about both your personal and family medical histories. Your physician will check for pelvic edema. To find out if the prostate is enlarged, men may need to have a rectal exam. A pelvic exam may be necessary for women to determine whether their uterus or ovaries are in any trouble.


  • Urine tests: A urinary sample will be obtained and examined to check for the presence of bacteria, infection, stone crystals, or blood.


  • Blood tests: A full blood count can be done to check for the presence of an infection. It is possible to do kidney function tests such as those for creatinine, estimated GFR (eGFR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).


  • Ultrasounds are the primary test used in imaging operations. Radiation is not needed for this. It could be required to get a CT or MRI.


How is hydronephrosis handled medically?


The goal of therapy is to reduce edema and pressure brought on by pee back-up as well as to restore urine flow from the kidney. The underlying ailment, which is the main issue, will determine how you are treated. With your healthcare professional, you should go through your treatment choices.


A stent or smooth tube (nephrostomy tube) may well be placed through the tissue into the kidney to drain out extra urine if the hydronephrosis is severe or abrupt. A urologist may do a cystoscopy to implant a soft piece of plastic called a ureteral stent between the kidney and bladder to drain extra fluid.


Treatment options might include: If kidney or ureteral stones are the cause of hydronephrosis,


  • The most popular technique for resolving kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy. A machine outside emits high-energy shock waves to crush the stones into dirt or smaller pieces so they may exit the body.


  • In order to break up and extract the stones, a doctor may use ureteroscopy, in which case a small piece with special equipment is inserted into the urethra. The majority of the time, this procedure is done to treat ureteral or bladder stones. To break up stones, ureteroscopy may be combined with other procedures like a pulsed dye laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Pregnant ladies, those with blood clotting issues, and people who are extremely obese all prefer this treatment.
  • Surgery: Kidney stones that are extremely big or challenging to remove could need to be surgically removed. Additionally, if you have a tumor or another form of obstruction, surgery can be necessary.

Drugs for hydronephrosis treatment:


  • Urinary tract infections may be prevented or treated using antibiotics.
  • Analgesics are drugs that aid in pain management.


How may hydronephrosis be avoided?


Since an underlying ailment causes hydronephrosis, prevention focuses on avoiding or quickly addressing the cause. For instance, visiting a stone clinic to determine the cause of the stones and begin therapy to avoid recurrence may lower the risk of acquiring kidney stones (repeating).


If you have severe side or abdominal discomfort, vomiting, or a temperature of more than 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, get medical attention right once.

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