How to delay Progression Of CKD

Track the development of chronic kidney disease

End stage kidney disease (ESRD) develops in some people more quickly than in others. Some patients do not develop ESRD. It’s critical to keep an eye on all CKD patients.

Those who are most likely to advance quickly need to be found and given vigorous treatment.

The following are progression risks:


  • diabetes, especially when it’s accompanied with high albuminuria levels
  • My blood pressure is high.
  • elevated albuminuria
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate falling (eGFR)

Utilize the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to track the progression of kidney disease (UACR)


Utilize the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to track the progression of kidney disease (UACR)

Monitoring urinary albumin can help determine a patient’s illness progression and therapeutic response. The prognosis of the kidneys and the cardiovascular system may be enhanced by lowering urinary albumin excretion to normal or near-normal levels.


An ongoing risk factor is urine albumin. More than 30 mg/g of UACR is regarded as abnormal. Historically, microalbuminuria has been defined as 30-300 mg/g and macroalbuminuria as more than 300 mg/g. Therefore, the 300 mg/g cut-off does not reflect the physiological threshold; rather, it just approximates a correlation with the lowest limit for the sensitivity of the conventional urine dipstick.


Slow down the process and lessen complications


Similar treatment plans are used to delay progression and lower cardiovascular risk. They consist of:


  • dietary interventions
  • lifestyle modifications
  • medical treatment to lower albuminuria, regulate blood pressure, and blood sugar


Some patients’ renal disease will still advance despite these treatments. Monitoring for the comorbidities and problems that may be present in this situation is advised. These may consist of:

  • heart disease with hyperlipidemia
  • Low iron reserves and impaired erythropoiesis-related anemia
  • malnutrition
  • bone and mineral diseases
  • lower functional status and depression

Dietary interventions

Diet treatment in CKD has two purposes: to slow the disease’s development and to prevent and cure consequences, such as malnutrition. Diet therapy’s initial phases include:


To help manage blood pressure, keep daily dietary salt intake to 2,300 mg.

Since salt substitutes typically include a lot of potassium, it may be best to avoid them if you’re taking medicine to inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway.

Protein consumption that is sufficient but not excessive may assist to minimize albuminuria and delay development.


Aim for 0.8 g of protein per kilogramme of body weight per day for an adequate protein intake. The following steps in treating CKD may involve reducing dietary potassium and phosphorus. Avoiding food with phosphorus additions may be a good initial step if dietary phosphorus limitation is recommended.

Behavioral Interventions

Encourage healthy habits like getting more exercise and quitting smoking. Smoking cigarettes is linked to abnormal urine albumin and CKD development. Smoking increases the risk of heart attack and stroke mortality in CKD patients. Step-down NRT is typically safe, but the patient has to be kept an eye out for any adverse effects, which might include contact allergy or sensitization and a worsening of pre-existing hypertension.


Despite their tendency to be less active, patients with CKD should nonetheless aim to engage in physical exercise for at least 20 to 30 minutes each day. Both aerobic and strength exercise should be promoted to enhance or avoid deconditioning. Exercise may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and help diabetics better regulate their blood sugar


Medical Administration

Controlling blood pressure, blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and controlling blood glucose in diabetics are important therapies. In individuals with albuminuria, the use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs has been shown to reduce the course of CKD and is regarded as first-line therapy.


Techniques for halting development


improved control over blood pressure. Probably the most successful technique to halt the progression of renal disease is blood pressure control.

ACE inhibitors/ARBs to lower albuminuria and manage blood pressure. When hypertension is absent, these medications may help glomerular (albuminuric) kidney disease in addition to treating hypertension.

regulation of blood glucose in diabetic individuals.


Blood Pressure Management


Both CKD’s cause and one of its complications is high blood pressure. Uncontrolled hypertension can hasten the decrease of GFR. It often takes a mix of antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle changes to regulate blood pressure.


The panel members for the eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) finished a thorough analysis of the data on the management of hypertensive adults in 2014. The Panel advised treating persons with CKD to a blood pressure target of less than 140/90 mm Hg based on expert judgment since there was insufficient evidence to support blood pressure objectives in the CKD group. For hypertensive individuals with CKD, the panel also suggested starting therapy with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The Panel highlighted that clinical judgment should always take precedence, nonetheless.

Observe your blood pressure

For all CKD patients, routine blood pressure monitoring is advised. The following methods are suggested:


  • Thirty minutes before the measurement, the patient should abstain from smoking and caffeine consumption.
  • Patients should sit on a chair with their backs supported, their arms outstretched, and their chests supported.
  • Prior to being measured, the patient should be given 5 minutes to relax on the chair.
  • Use a cuff of the proper size.
  • Low Blood Pressure Treatment
  • The pillars of managing high blood pressure are antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle changes.


It has been demonstrated that ACE inhibitors and ARBs, especially in individuals with albuminuria, decrease the course of CKD. Both the systemic and glomerular capillary blood pressure are decreased by these drugs. When hypertension is absent, these medication groups may also be taken into account for glomerular (albuminuric) kidney disease. When recommending these meds, keep an eye out for hyperkalemia.


  • Review the patient’s blood pressure if it is not at the desired level.
  • appropriateness of salt restriction in the diet
  • Adherence to medication schedule and effectiveness of diuretic regimen


Decreasing albuminuria


Lowering urine albumin may reduce the risk of progression since elevated urine albumin is linked to an increased risk of renal events. 


Reduced albuminuria may be a sign that CKD is progressing more slowly as a result of ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Both the systemic and glomerular capillary blood pressure are decreased by these drugs. 


When hypertension is absent, they may also be taken into account in glomerular (albuminuric) kidney disease. Limiting sodium intake may improve how well these drugs work.


When using ACE or ARBs, keep an eye out for hyperkalemia. After starting these medications, minor, nonprogressive increases in serum creatinine may be due to hemodynamic changes rather than the advancement of renal disease.


Albuminuria may be decreased by losing weight, reducing dietary salt, and restricting an excessive amount of dietary protein.


Blood Glucose Management


The risk of having albuminuria may be decreased by achieving and maintaining appropriate glycemic management. In type 1 diabetes, intensive glycemic management slows the course of albuminuria; in type 2, the advantages are less obvious. Current diabetes recommendations include aiming for an A1C of less than 7%. Recent research, however, highlights the significance of personalizing therapy objectives.


The elderly and individuals with a history of severe hypoglycemia and/or several concomitant illnesses may benefit from less strict glycemic management.

Younger individuals with a main goal of preventing microvascular consequences and no history of severe hypoglycemia or comorbidities may benefit from more stringent glycemic management.

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