Acute kidney injury causes

What is the definition of acute renal injury?


  • Acute kidney damage occurs when your kidneys abruptly cease performing correctly. 
  • The kidneys filter unwanted materials from blood and assist in maintaining a healthy balance of water, salt, and other minerals (electrolytes). 
  • Waste materials, fluids, and electrolytes accumulate in your body when your kidneys cease operating. It can result in life-threatening issues.
  • Unlike kidney failure, which occurs due to progressive kidney damage, AKI is typically reversible if detected and treated early. If your kidneys were in good shape before they suddenly failed and you were treated for AKI straight away, your kidneys may function properly or almost normally once your AKI is treated. 


What are the signs and symptoms?


  • Acute kidney damage can cause the following symptoms:
  • When you try to pee, there is little or no urine.
  • Swelling, particularly in the legs and feet
  • Not feeling like eating.
  • Nausea and vomiting are common side effects.
  • Feeling perplexed, worried, restless, or tired.
  • Back pain, right below the rib cage. It is referred to as flank pain.
  • Some people may not show any signs at all. In addition, the condition that is causing the kidney impairment may be producing additional symptoms in patients who are already sick.


What causes acute kidney injury?


There are three primary causes of acute renal injury:


  • An abrupt and significant decrease in blood flow to the kidneys. Much blood loss can reduce blood flow to the kidneys, cause an accident, or a severe illness called sepsis. Dehydration, or a lack of fluid in the body, can also affect the kidneys.


  • Some drugs, toxins, and illnesses can cause harm. The majority of people do not experience renal issues due to taking medications. People with significant, long-term health issues, on the other hand, are more prone than others to develop kidney disease because of their drugs. 


Here are some examples of drugs that might affect the kidneys: 

  • Antibiotics like gentamicin and streptomycin are used to treat infections.
  • Naproxen and ibuprofen are pain relievers. 
  • ACE inhibitors, for example, are blood pressure medications—some of the colours used in X-ray testing.


  • An abrupt obstruction in the kidneys prevents urine from draining. A blockage might be caused by kidney stones, tumours, accidents, or an enlarged prostate gland. If you are an older adult, you have a higher risk of acute renal damage. One might have a chronic health condition such as kidney or liver disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure, or obesity. You’ve already been admitted to the hospital or are receiving necessary treatment (ICU). You’re more prone to have kidney issues if you’ve had heart or abdominal surgery or had a bone marrow transplant.

Urinary tract blockage: Conditions or disorders in some persons might prevent urine from leaving the body, resulting in AKI.


The following factors might produce a blockage:

  • Cancer of the bladder, prostate, or cervix
  • Prostate enlargement
  • Nervous system problems that impact the bladder and urination
  • Stones in the kidneys
  • Urine clots are basically blood clots that form in the urinary system.


  • Kidney Damage from Direct Contact: AKI can be caused by various diseases and disorders that harm the kidneys. Here are a few examples: “Sepsis” is a sort of severe, life-threatening illness.
  • “Multiple myeloma” is a form of cancer.
  • Vasculitis is an uncommon disorder that produces inflammation and scarring in your blood vessels, causing them to stiffen, weaken, and narrow.
  • An allergic reaction to some medications (“interstitial nephritis”) can cause kidney failure.
  • Scleroderma is a disorder category that damages the connective tissue that supports your internal organs.
  • Tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and thrombotic microangiopathy are all conditions that cause inflammation or damage to the renal tubules, tiny blood arteries in the kidneys, or the filtering units in the kidneys.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs when your kidneys are unexpectedly injured. AKI can be detected by a variety of factors, including:

  • Your kidneys aren’t getting enough blood.
  • Direct damage to the kidneys
  • A blockage in your ureters, the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder

The following are some examples of issues that might cause your kidneys to have insufficient blood flow:


  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Too much bleeding
  • Having a lot of diarrhea
  • A heart attack or heart disease
  • Infection
  • Failure of the liver
  • Aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are examples of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications).
  • Severe burns
  • Being extremely dehydrated (not having enough fluid in your body)
  • An extreme allergic response has occurred.


The following are some instances of issues that might harm your kidneys directly:


  • Kidney clots or blood clots surrounding the kidneys
  • Glomerulonephritis and lupus infection are two diseases that damage the kidneys.
  • Certain medications, such as chemotherapy treatments, antibiotics, and contrast dyes used in CT scans, MRI scans, and other imaging procedures, have been linked to cancer.
  • Abuse of alcohol or other drugs
  • Some diseases of the blood or blood vessels


The following are some examples of issues that might lead to a blockage in your urinary tract:


  • Some malignancies are more aggressive than others.
  • Kidney clots or blood clots surrounding the kidneys
  • Stones in the kidneys
  • Bladder issues
  • Prostate enlargement (in men)


What are the symptoms of acute renal injury, and how can you treat it?


  • AKI treatment frequently necessitates a stay in a hospital. 
  • Acute kidney damage affects most persons who are already in the hospital for another cause. 
  • The length of your hospital stay is determined by the cause of your AKI and how fast your kidneys recover.
  • Dialysis may be required in more extreme situations to assist renal function until your kidneys heal. 
  • Your healthcare provider’s main objective is to treat the underlying cause of your acute kidney damage. 
  • Until your kidneys recover, your healthcare practitioner will treat all your symptoms and consequences.


Following AKI, your risks of developing other health issues (such as renal disease, stroke, or heart disease) or developing AKI again are increased. Every time AKI forms, the odds of developing renal disease and kidney failure rise. You should keep track of your kidney function and recovery with your healthcare professional to protect yourself. Preventing acute kidney injury or detecting and treating it as soon as possible are the greatest approaches to reduce your risks of developing kidney damage and preserving renal function.


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