Dialysis of COVID-19

Dialysis of COVID-19

As COVID-19 has engulfed the whole world, a pandemic situation has come into existence. Here is a set of questions to intimate you about the dialysis process of COVID-19 patients.

How dialysis of COVID-19 takes place?

The Government has taken initiatives to set up different dialysis centers, especially for COVID-19 patients throughout the country. All the dialysis technicians have to abide by the guidelines formulated by the higher authorities. Each center has three separate units for the tests. They are the outside area, the screening area, and the internal Dialysis Unit.

What are the duties of the Administration for dialysis units?

According to the Government’s general guidelines, the administration authorities of every dialysis center should follow these rules;-

  • The hospital should specify at least one hemodialysis facility with an adequate number of dialysis machines and trained staff
  • District Administration should ensure that dialysis consumables are delivered to both hospitals.

When should a patient visit a Dialysis center for COVID-19?

Before visiting the dialysis unit, the patient should recognize the symptoms first. The usual signs of COVID-19 are fever, sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, body ache, fatigue, etc. There should be appropriate arrangements for all the arrivals in the screening area. The patients stable on maintenance hemodialysis can come to the unit alone without the support of any attendant.

Can dialysis patients recover post COVID-19 infection?

According to the recent reports, around 80% of the COVID patients undergoing dialysis have mild or moderate symptoms. However, 15-20% of the cases show that the patients are suffering from severe conditions. As per experts, after proper dialysis, the COVID-19 patients can fully recover within six weeks on an average. But, the duration can extend to a few months in some severe cases.

After a successful recovery from ventilation, the patients can go through a post-traumatic stress disorder. But, those who lack desirable response in ventilation can suffer from an acute lung disorder. This can also be fatal.

What is the dialysis process for patients with acute kidney injury?

The symptoms are generally mild but AKI patients requiring renal replacement therapy can develop serious complications. For such patients with AKI, bed-side dialysis will be more preferable than shifting to the central dialysis unit.

The Deadly Disease Coronavirus (COVID-19)

The Deadly Disease Coronavirus (COVID-19): Few Questions And Answers

Deadly Disease Coronavirus: 2019, December marked the beginning of a black period in the history of mankind. A new name became the subject-matter of the headlines-Coronavirus (COVID-19). Wuhan of China became the first place of its attack. Gradually, the virus spread across the globe like wildfire. The eminent scientists of all countries are putting their heart and soul in the research of a vaccine that can prevent this deadly virus. However, no definite solution is found yet. The countries are going through continuous lockdown. Thus, this virus has adversely affected the health, business, and economic conditions. There is a scarcity of food, personal protection equipment, and people are out of money. Hundreds are facing unemployment issues. To help the public at large at this difficult stage, we will provide some questions and answers.

What is COVID-19 or Novel Coronavirus? How did it get the name? : Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is absolutely a new type of virus that has emerged on the Earth’s surface. This is a disease that has no similarity with any of the previously identified diseases that circulate among humans. Hence, the procedure for diagnosis is also different. The diagnosis will not match the processes involved in coronavirus 229E, HKU1, and similar diseases. So, special types of care and treatment will have to be arranged for the COVID-19 affected people.

The novel coronavirus was first identified in Wuhan, China. In the earlier stage, there was no proper name for the disease. After that, when the disease started spreading in other countries also, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an official name for the same on 11th February 2020. Previously, the experts used to refer to the disease as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV” as it emerged in December 2019. However, the new name of the disease is Coronavirus Disease 2019, the abbreviation of which is COVID-19. There are various coronaviruses that cause mild respiratory problems. However, as the virus causing COVID-19 is new for humankind, the word novel is attached to the same.

How is the virus transmitted from one person to another? : The rapid transmission of COVID-19 mainly occurs from infected persons to others. The carrier of the virus is the respiratory droplets from the coughs and sneezes of the infected person. If you are taking appropriate protection, these droplets can fall on the nose or mouth or can enter the lungs also during inhalation. The chances of transmission are more when the person comes in close contact with the affected person, say within the distance of six feet. At present, the world is witnessing a ‘community spread’ in several corners as this virus is transmitting at a random speed. The term ‘community spread’ means people of a particular geographical area are getting affected by the disease. Among them, some are not sure how they got the infection.

As the infected persons can spread the disease quickly among a hundred more, it has been recommended that the patients developing the symptoms for the disease should stay in isolation. So, as a responsible citizen, everybody should stay at home quarantine and break the chain of infection. Quarantine means separating a person with a contagious disease with the rest of the world. For COVID-19, the minimum isolation period is 14 days. Therefore, somebody leading a quarantined life is not a risk for society.

Why are we observing a rise in the cases? : The cases of coronavirus are increasing rapidly, mainly due to the carelessness of the locals. Besides, sometimes the government also does not generate accurate records on a timely basis. Laboratory testing requires a lot of time. As a result, the day count varies depending on the scenario. So, in the absence of the correct reports showing the exact number of people affected, an increase in the number of cases is quite evident. Even some people who did not show any symptoms also got positive reports for COVID-19. For how long a person should be kept in the hospital varies on different factors as per the facts and circumstances of each case. Also, the doctors take the decision after consulting with the state and local health officials.

What are the precautionary measures to prevent coronavirus? : The precautionary measures that everybody should take to prevent the spread of coronavirus are as follows;-

  • Wash Your Hands: After coming from a public place, or sneezing or blowing your nose, you must wash your hands thoroughly with soap for at least 20 seconds. In case of unavailability of soap and water, you can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Please avoid touching your mouth, nose, and eyes with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid Close Contact: Please do not come in close contact with any person suffering from any kind of disease. Sick people have the highest risk of being infected. Hence, maintain a safe distance, even at home. Always try to maintain a minimum distance of six feet with others. Avoid any kind of gatherings or crowded places like the mall, cinema halls, etc.
  • Cover The Mouth: It is very important that you wear proper masks to cover your nose and mouth whenever going out or communicating with others. In case you do not have a mask, you can use a cotton cloth and tie it around your face. But, you must keep in mind that wearing masks is mandatory to protect yourself and the others from the infection. However, you cannot avoid social distancing even if you are using a mask.
  • Protection during Coughs and Sneezes: Even if you are in a private place, never cough or sneeze in the open air. You must cover the face with a tissue or hanky and throw the same in the bin. After that, you must wash your hands thoroughly or use a hand sanitizer.
  • Maintain Hygiene and Cleanliness: Clean all the touchable objects, floors, or other surfaces daily that you come across frequently, such as tables, doorknobs, toilets, desks, and others. You can disinfect the non-washable goods like phones, laptops, etc.

What are the symptoms of coronavirus? : People who are having coronavirus can develop different types of symptoms. Sometimes, these are even seen much after the reports are generated, showing positive corona results. The most common symptoms include high fever, dry cough, and troubled breathing. Besides, there are a few less common signs, too, that indicate that you might have been infected by the virus. These are sore throat, diarrhea, aches and pains, headache, skin rashes, and many more. However, you will understand that the health condition is taking a serious turn when you are suffering from acute chest pain, shortness of breath, or loss of speech or unsteady movements. So, if you have any of these, an immediate call for medical help. Always remember that you cannot compromise with your health as well as that of your family. Hence, without any delay, take the initiative to go through the tests. Once you are assured of the reports, whether you are having COVID-19 or not, you can think of the next steps.

 

What should you do after developing any of the symptoms? : Coronavirus has already taken millions of lives across the globe. The way it is spreading, getting paranoid is very natural. However, if you are always afraid about what is going to happen in the next moment, it will not do any good. The proper solution will be to take appropriate precautions and to follow all the instructions of the government in this regard. By taking some small steps, we can protect ourselves as well as the whole society.

If you or any of your family members are showing any kind of symptoms of the corona, it is essential that you maintain home quarantine strictly and do not move out of the house except for extreme emergencies. Before going to any medical facility, it is better to explain all your symptoms to your doctor over the phone. In case the symptoms are mild, the doctor will only advise you to drink a lot of liquids, stay at home, take sufficient rest, and keep a watch on the symptoms. If you observe any betterment, you should communicate that too. However, in case of the development of some more symptoms, do not hesitate to share that with your physician. Your health is very crucial. So, always wear a mask and avoid crowded places or public transport.

Who has the highest chances of getting affected by the virus? : The virus causing COVID-19 can infect anyone irrespective of their age. However, medical history suggests that majorly two groups of people have the highest risk of getting affected by the disease. One section includes the older people who are aged 60 years or above; the other group consists of sick people. Sick means those who are suffering from some acute health problems like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or any other chronic disease. The risk will start increasing for the people above 40 years of age. Hence, adults should behave in a more responsible way to protect themselves as well as others from the harmful hands of this virus. Special circulars and advice are there from the WHO for these two groups of people. These are steps to ensure that they get full protection from the infection of COVID-19. Such people who are not staying in isolation are exposed to vulnerabilities for getting the infection. Hence, there should be a special arrangement of treatment and social care for these people.

What are the different types of tests associated with Disease Coronavirus? There are different kinds of tests associated with coronavirus to identify whether a person is having COVID-19 or not. These areas under;

Swab test: This is the first and primary test where the samples of fluid are taken from the throat or nose. It is quite painful for the patient while the samples are collected.

Sputum test: Sputum is a kind of thick mucus. This is collected when you cough and kept in a separate cup.

Blood test: A blood sample is also taken to check whether your blood contains the virus.

Rapid test: This is the most popular test that involves the collection of fluid samples from the lungs, nose, or throat. It is prevalent in most of the CDC-approved health organizations and ensures an accurate diagnosis more quickly.

There are many other tests, but during all the tests, you can feel a bit uncomfortable. However, these effects are temporary in nature. After the test is over, the respective places will heal slowly.

When should a person get admitted to the hospital in Disease Coronavirus? : When a person severely develops any of the symptoms, he or she should go to the medical help immediately. The hospital authorities can decide to admit a suspected patient immediately and put the person in an isolation ward. There are no separate hospitals as per the WHO recommendations for COVID-19 patients. However, some countries can choose to build separate cells to keep the affected persons separate from the general crowd. Moreover, every patient should abide by the WHO infection prevention suggestions so that they can protect the other patients, medical staff, and visitors.

Does any protected immunity develop after treating the corona infection? Is there any chance of recurrence of the Disease Coronavirus? : There is no conclusive evidence until now that persons recovering from the coronavirus infection have developed any antibodies. Hence, you cannot say with certainty there can be no chances of recurrence of this deadly disease. Immunity develops a pathogen through natural infection. It is a multi-step process, and so it is not easy to develop the protected resistance power to prevent the further occurrence of COVID-19. Some think that antibiotics have the potential to treat or prevent the disease. However, this is not true.

What is the recommended PPE for healthcare professionals dealing with corona patients? : All healthcare professionals dealing with corona patients should take extra protection for themselves. Personal protection equipment or PPE is a must for people working in healthcare units. FFP2 and FFP3 respirators are the best to provide respiratory protection. Besides, the ideal PPE kit should also contain goggles or face shields to protect eyes, long-sleeved water-resistant gown, and medicated gloves for hand protection.

 

Kidney Transplant & COVID-19

Kidney Transplant & COVID-19

Kidney Transplant & COVID-19 Patients Guidelines

You must know a few facts about kidney transplant recipients, then only you can understand the implications. These patients are continuously required to take immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, they have a higher risk of infection from corona virus or any other simple virus, such as cold or flu. To lower the chances of getting the coronavirus, kidney transplant patients should follow the CDC’s guidelines. They know how to avoid catching or spreading viruses. Moreover, they can contact their doctors, if they develop symptoms of COVID-19.

Are post-transplant patients at higher risk from contracting the disease?

Yes, this is a relevant question. If you have just undergone kidney transplant and staying with family members. You should be cautious of members who have contracted the disease. There might be additional sanitization norms for such patients.

How can I get emergency kidney treatment? 

You should keep your dialysis center number handy. In case, you face a situation where you need dialysis, call them up. They will schedule you, if it is urgent or else they will recommend you to the nearest center.

Moreover, during this time, you should have food with low sodium and potassium. It increases the risk all the more.

Do the transplant kidney patients and donors get affected by the virus?

As already told, kidney transplant patients are at a higher risk of contracting Covid -19. However, the risk comes after the surgery. You cannot get the virus from donors. Donors are properly screened. Moreover, living donors are asked to stay in 14 days’ isolation to avoid the contamination themselves.

However, if things go awry then the below symptoms do crop up.

Cold symptoms

Sore Throat

Fever

Less urine generation

Weight imbalance

Pain over transplant area

 

What should I know about medicines and treatments?

As reported worldwide, there is no miracle cure. No patients can be cured overnight. It depends on the patient’s immune system in totality. In fact, research on vaccinations are underway. There has been no concrete success on the same.

 

What are the Prevention tips Kidney Transplant & COVID-19

It is very important, that you take proper care of yourself. You can undergo routine tests. Moreover, you can also get your urine samples checked. If there is no option for home testing, you need to go to the lab to give your samples. All healthcare areas are sanitizing their equipment and machinery before staring tests. So, you can be privy to that. Moreover, they are using PPEs while interacting with customers and patients. You yourself can wear a mask. Also, come back home and wash properly. Use hand sanitizers, wherever possible.  Moreover, you have to be well prepared.

You should buy extra supplies, that includes masks and disposable gloves.  This is to enable you to fight the virus, should you come into contact with someone at a medical center or someone in your locality. Also remember to disinfect touched surfaces such as doorknobs and countertops.

Will there be any drugs supply delays in future?

There is no report on drug supply delays yet. However, if people like you start hoarding drugs and medicines, there might be. The government is aiming at maintain a steady supply of all necessary medicines. Moreover, the Food and Drug Administration is keeping a close watch on drug supply and management. So, you need not worry. Just, buy what has been prescribed to you. Do not change the medicines without speaking to your doctor.

Are you feeling stressed out and depressed?

It is natural for those, who have been diagnosed with chronic kidney diseases to feel scared. Moreover, there are other patients as well, like those on dialysis, kidney transplants patients and donors to feel depressed. The most that you can do in such cases is to maintain the sanitization norms that the government has advised.  WHO has some great ways for helping you to manage your stress and anxiety. They have even started helplines to assist you.

 

Do any of the kidney medications increase the risk from COVID-19?

Yes, it is true. Those who have co-morbidities are at a higher risk of the infection. Cancer patients and those on this drug are at a higher risk. These medicines and drugs reduce the body’s immune system. The immune system becomes powerless. Oral steroids taken as a part of the treatment also reduce the bodies normal immune power. Moreover, if you are taking it for a longer time, it becomes all the more evident.

 

Are other medical conditions responsible for aggravation?

The Covid -19 virus aggravates the satiation even more. The virus that causes the disease infects people of all ages. They are the older people over sixty years old.  Then people with medical conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, asthma, other respiratory disease, and cancer. The risk of severe disease gradually increases with age starting from midlife. It is important that adults in this group save themselves from the virus. WHO is advising older people to meet people, if necessary without touching. Ask everyone to wash hands for 20 seconds. They should clean their clothes and body regularly with disinfectant soap.

What are various modes of distancing like?

They are self-isolation, quarantine and distancing. The self-isolation refers to separate and stay away in a room or a far off place. You should not talk or interact with anyone. They may be infected.

Quarantine means restricting all your activities. These are people with exposure to Covid conditions. They may not be infected yet but taking precaution. They may carry symptoms.

Physical distancing means distancing norms for normal people. You should follow these norms when visiting markets and other public places.

Can children catch the disease?

Children and teens are also at a higher risk just like older adults and kidney patients. So, you must ensure to keep them well-protected. These groups should follow the same guidelines as followed by other members of the community. Do not allow children to play with other children from the community. This is a prerequisite. So, take care to follow it without fail.

What is COVID-19?

What is COVID-19 all about?

COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus strain. It is a new virus or disease that is contagious. Those who become infected with this virus, will experience mild to severe symptoms. The symptoms are more of the respiratory types. The virus affects aged people more than anyone else. Those who have a history of heart ailments, asthmatic symptoms and diabetes should be more vigilant.

The disease which is caused by this virus Covid-19, has several implications. The Coronavirus disease was first detected in 2019 in Wuhan, China. Therefore, the strain has been named Covid-19, according to the year.  COVID-19 is also known as the “Novel Coronavirus,” which means, it is a new type of coronavirus not previously discovered or identified.

Corona Viruses are a large group of viruses, which have been known to cause illness in humans and animals. It leads to respiratory infections which range from common cold to severe diseases. The various diseases are MERS or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or SARS, whose full form is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

What are the various different kinds of symptoms of COVID-19?

The most commonly found symptoms of the coronavirus disease are:

  • Fever
  • Dry Cough and sore throat
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Diarrhoea
  • Aches and Pains

If you have the above symptoms, then you should immediately call your healthcare provider. You can acquire information related to the virus and its symptoms from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India website.

Why is the entire world so worried about COVID-19 or the Corona Virus disease? 

Till date, we had only heard of pandemics and epidemics. However, the current generation is facing this for the first time. The world has witnessed the small pox epidemic and cholera epidemic. However, this is very new. The world does not even have a vaccine and that is bothering most.

The reasons everyone is so worried about Corona Virus disease are:

  • It is a new virus.
  • There are numerous facts, we don’t know about it.
  • There are no vaccines or medication available as of now.
  • It spreads like fire.

How does COVID-19 spread?

The disease mainly spreads through droplets from coughing and sneezing. You can either get infected through direct contact or through indirect contact. Direct contact means, that you are in close contact with someone, who is suffering from the disease. Indirect contact refers to contamination through cough and sneeze droplets, that survive on the surface for fourteen hours. If someone touches any such surface and touches his or her mouth, contamination can happen.

When is someone with the Novel Virus or COVID-19 contagious?

It can be contagious when someone has or does not have the symptoms. Moreover, it may also spread from people who are already infected, but do not display symptoms. Such people have a strong immune system, however they are at a greater risk of infecting others.

According to the CDC, Corona virus spreads mainly through close contact with infected persons. And through the cough and sneeze droplets from someone who is infected. also it spreads from fomites. People who are infected often have no symptoms or signs of illness. Some people without symptoms may spread the virus, as others are not aware that the incumbent has the disease.

Who is at a risk of contracting the COVID-19?

Covid-19 is a new disease that can affect some people more severely than the others. Older adults and people who have underlying conditions like asthma, cardiac diseases, diabetes, are at a higher risk than normal and younger people.

Do kidney ailments put me at a higher risk of infection?

Yes, people with a chronic kidney disease are at higher risk for more severe illness.

There are people, who are on dialysis. They have weak immune system. Therefore, making it hard for their bodies to fight infections. However, it is important for all to know that such kidney patients need to continue with their treatments and should take precautions as advised by their doctors.

There are people who had a kidney transplant very recently. Such people have not recovered fully and need to take anti-rejection medicines or immunosuppressive medicines. These medicines make the immune system weak, which can make it hard to fight viruses. However, it is still necessary to keep taking these medicines. It is also useful to wash both the hands, maintain good sanitary norms and follow the guidelines from their respective doctors.

Why do you need to wash both your hands and avoid touching the face?

Public health officials are encouraging washing the hands for 20 seconds. The virus lives on various surfaces for a long period of time. Therefore, you have to keep washing hands and eyes. You never know, where the contamination is. Most people have a habit of scratching their faces, biting nails, rubbing their eyes and noses. So, washing hands is really important. The infectious virus enters through the body’s opening.

How do I keep my hands sanitized and clean?

You can keep your hands clean by washing them frequently. It can prevent the virus from entering the body through the orifices in the body. You should wash hands before and after making food, before and after eating, before and after treating wounds, and also on handling various objects. If you have pets at home, you should increase the number of times, you wash the hands. It is advisable to clean hands with any soap, liquid hand wash and a sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol.

What are the cleaning agents that work against the virus?

The Council recommends that busy and over-used surfaces should be cleaned daily. Apart from cleaning the surfaces with disinfectants, you can clean hands with soap and water. Sodium hypochlorite is a bleach and you can use it as well. The other option is to wash hands with surgical solution. You can use ethanol that is diluted. Or else, you can also use doctor’s spirit. Moreover, you can also use surface wipes and hand sanitizers.

What do you mean by Flattening of – Curve 

Flattening the curve means the aim of slowing the spread of an infectious disease, like Covid -19 in an effort to keep the disease under control.

Certain diseases like COVID-19, can be contagious and can spread from one person to the other person. However, maintain such things as social distancing, which are used to help slow down the spread of the disease and also prevent a rush at hospitals.

The graph from the Centers For Disease Control shows the idea of what a flattening the curve is. The taller the curve, the more severe the outbreak is, with no intervention. The flatter the curve, it shows a possible outbreak with interventions. Flattening the curve can help reduce the pressure on hospitals and other parts of the health system. It gives a chance to respond without becoming pressurized with uncertainties.

Why COVID-19 does not have a medicine or vaccine yet?

COVID-19 is a new form of coronavirus. Therefore, there is no vaccine. Moreover, past research work may speed up the search for Covid-19, however approval process may take 18 months to 2 years.

The potential treatments need to go through a three-phase clinical trial. Then only, the government can release it in the market.

How can we teach social distancing and the importance of social distancing?

There are various reports of people celebrating marriages and birthdays, without fear. In the process, they are contaminating others. There are a lot of young nurses and healthcare professionals working in close contact, are contracting the disease. During these trying times, everybody has to understand, that maintaining distances is the only way to stop the spread of the disease.

People of all age groups who need to be educated, on what this virus can do to them and the people in the family. A few older people are getting bored at home and are venturing outside.

There are researchers who are working day and night to develop a vaccine. The process of research and development are taking new turns and can take many years. When a vaccine is out, it also needs to be examined and checked to make sure it’s working and effective. Moreover, the elderly is over confident. They think, they know more.

Misinformation and stubbornness are the main reasons. Therefore, they have to be explained about the vulnerabilities in details.

How can we find COVID-19 facts from myths?

There are various myths associated with Covid-19. There are myths that high temperature can destroy the virus. However, this not true. Another myth is that, if you expose yourself to the sun, you can kill the virus. Another myth is that steaming, gargling, and bathing in very hot water can protect you against COVID-19. It is not true. Too much of steaming can damage your respiratory channel.

Trustworthy sources

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India, WHO or the World Health Organization is one of the trustworthy sources for Covid-19 information.

You should only believe in information from reliable sources. You should not pay much heed to news generated by social media. Most of the news bulletins are fake. Use your good judgement, to differentiate between the right and wrong. You should not trust all the sources in the market.

Social media: use caution

Everybody is representing the government today. Therefore, is commenting and distributing facts and figures. The posts on social media can be very misleading. They turn myths into facts under most circumstances and should be given a miss. The best way is to avoid reading them.

You can be part of the solution

You should take care to collect and disseminate proper information. Always make sure to follow the directives from Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India. Moreover, you should also encourage others to follow the directives. If you see that someone is not listening, you can make arrangements to make them follow the government instructions.

How can I make a mask at home?

You can make a mask very easily. The common people do not need three-ply masks or N95. You can make a cloth mask easily at home. Just take a square piece of cloth and attach elastic bands on both ends.

Can COVID-19 cause kidney failure?

There have been reports of kidney failure for patients suffering from Covid-19. However, it is not entirely true, that the virus has caused it. The patient may be having other silent symptoms.

Know the  several kidney ailments

There are two forms of kidney diseases. These are two conditions. They are called acute kidney injury and the other one is called chronic kidney disease, which will lead to chronic kidney failure. The detection of the proteins and blood in urine swabs is an easy way of detecting kidney malfunction in people.

You are a high risk individual, if you are in any of these categories. If you had a kidney transplant, if you are on dialysis, if you are above 70 years and have been taking immune-suppressants. Moreover, if you are suffering from autoimmune conditions, you are in the high risk category.  If you are undergoing dialysis. These people must isolate themselves. Covid-19 is known to aggravate these symptoms, so you have to be careful.